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     Volume 4 Issue 70 | November 11, 2005 |

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A Bit of History
International Law

1.One of the first examples of a diplomatic mission is found in the Bible. Which Israelite king was visited by the Queen of Sheba?
*King David
*King Herod
*King Saul
*King Solomon
2.The origins of modern public international law can be traced directly from the work of Roman Jurisconsults in the 2nd Century AD. Whose work was particularly influencial in providing an early distinction between civil and international law?
3.What name did the Romans give to their concept of international law?
*Lex talionis
*Ius civile
*Ius gentium
4.The fall of the Roman Empire was a serious blow to the development of international law until the late 11th Century. What event sparked its resurgence?
*The great schism forces greater consideration of diplomatic relations
*The discovery of a complete copy of Justinian's Code in Pisa
*Omar Khayyam publishes his" Rubaiyat"
*Pope Urban II urges the First Crusade
5.Another event that sparked a rapid development in the international law was the capture of the Portuguese galleon, the Santa Catalina, by a ship from the Dutch East India company in 1601. This was argued to be a breach of the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas because the Dutch vessel was in Portuguese waters. Where did the incident take place?
*Off the coast of Lisbon
*In the Straits of Malacca
*In the South Atlantic, near Sao Paolo
*In the Gulf of Cambay
6.Who was the young Dutch lawyer hired by the Dutch East India company to prepare their defence for the capture of the Santa Catalina?
*Hugo de Groot
*Pieter Corneliuszoon Hooft
*Baruch Benedictus de Spinoza
*Peter Stuyvesant
7.The spread of international law to the world was facilitated by the Ching Dynasty ordering the translation of what text into Chinese in 1864?
*Elements of International Law
*The Law of War and Peace
*Justinian's Code
*The Prince
8.Commodore Perry's expedition to Japan in 1853 marked a watershed in Japanese history in many respects. More significant to the development of international law in Japan was the arrival and tenure of which American Consul-General?
*William Atherton
*John Logan
*Nathan Algren
*Townsend Harris
9.Following World War I, Woodrow Wilson came to the post-war negotiations with a plan for a League of Nations to prevent another war between major powers. Which of the following is NOT true about the League of Nations?
*It failed spectacularly in the 1930s
*It was initially founded with just 18 members
*The United States did not join
*Its creation coincided with the formation of the Permanent Court of International Justice
10.The United Nations Charter was signed on the 26th June 1945 in what city?
*Geneva, Switzerland
*New York, USA
*Rome, Italy
*San Francisco, USA
11.The UN Charter brought in more than just the General Assembly and Security Council. Which of the following was also created?
*The International Monetary Fund
*The World Health Organisation
*The Trusteeship Council
*The International Labour Organisation
12.Cassese notes that there were two dominant plans regarding how the United Nations was going to preserve world peace. Whose theory has become dominant in the structures of the UN?
*Neither plan is really represented in the modern structure
*The United Kingdom
*The United States of America
*A balanced synthesis of the US and UK plans
13.Which of the following signatories to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court had ratified it when it came into force on 1st July 2002?
*The United States of America
*The United Arab Emirates
14.One of the main purposes of the United Nations is to prevent future wars. Which provision of the UN charter actually prohibits the use of force in international relations?
*Article 11
*Article 51
*Article 2(4)
*Article 1(2)
15.Following the launch of Sputnik in October 1957, a whole new frontier was opened up for exploration, exploitation and international law. What is the acronym for the United Nations committee that quickly formed in response?

1. King Solomon
The story of the arrival of the Queen of Sheba can be found in the 1st Book of Kings, Chapter 10. Ancient accounts describing the protocols for diplomacy were also produced by the ancient Greeks, Indians and Chinese.
2. Gaius
It was Gaius, the Aristotelean scholar who in the "Institute of Gaius" provided this early distinction. His work was later used and reinforced by Justinian in the creation of his famous Code.
3. Ius gentium
"Ius gentium" is generally translated as "the law of nations" and prescribed how citizens who lived in the empire should be treated. The "ius civile" or municipal law applied in the state of Rome itself. The "lex talionis" is the law of punishment and retribution, and "dominium" is the concept of ownership.
4. The discovery of a complete copy of Justinian's Code in Pisa
The discovery of Justinian's comprehensive text led to the establishment of a highly influential School of Law in Bologna.
5. In the Straits of Malacca
The Straits of Malacca were argued to be a closed, private sea, and hence the sole property of the Portuguese under the Treaty of Tordesillas.
6. Hugo de Groot
Hugo de Groot (or Hugo Grotius), was later to become known as "the Father of International Law". The rest of the choices were famous Dutchmen. Spinoza was a philospher, Hooft a poet and playwright, and Stuyvesant an early governer of New York.
7. Elements of International Law
"Elements of International Law" was written by Henry Wheaton in 1836. The translation was done by William Martin, an American Missionary. It is a particularly interesting translation because rather than being word perfect, it was compressed into a set of basic ideas and commentaries so as to be more convenient for use by government officials.
8. Townsend Harris
Townsend Harris gave instruction to the Japanese in international law. This was, incidently, the first European legal concept to be introduced to Japan. His journal from this time was compiled and published in 1930 by M.E. Cosenza. The other choices are incidentally all names connected with the film "The Last Samurai".
9. It was initially founded with just 18 members
Despite having been founded enthusiastically with 42 members, the League of Nations was a wonderful idea that seemed doomed to failure in the troubled circumstances of the 1930s.
10. San Francisco, USA
The UN Charter was signed by 50 nations and forms the basis for the modern system of public international law.
11. The Trusteeship Council
Along with the UN itself, the UN Charter also created the General Assembly, the Security Council, the International Court of Justice, and the Trusteeship Council.
12. The United States of America
The United States Plan was championed by US Secretary of State Cordell Hull and President Franklin Roosevelt. It called for, among other things, the dismantling of colonial empires, the establishment of a universal organisation of "peace loving nations", and a global police role for the leading victors of WWII: the UK, France, USA, China and Russia.
13. Argentina
The Rome Statute finally received enough ratifications to enter into force on the 1st July 2002. If a country does not ratify the treaty then it is substantially more difficult for the International Criminal Court to exercise jurisdiction on its citizens.
14. Article 2(4)
It is article 2(4). Article 51 provides the exception of self defence (which is frequently invoked), Article 11 grants the General Assembly the ability to put situations of concern on the Security Council agenda, and Article 1(2) refers to self determination.
The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space was established in 1958 on encouragement from the United States. It eventually became a permanent committee and still exists, now with over 100 member countries. An interesting feature of UNCOPUOS is rather than taking votes, it tries to make all its decisions on consensus.

Source: funtrivia.com

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