US President Barack Obama has ordered a review of the distribution of military hardware to state and local police out of concern at how such equipment has been used during racial unrest in Ferguson, Missouri.
The president ordered the examination of federal programmemes and funding that enable state and local law enforcement to purchase such equipment, a senior Obama administration official said on Saturday.
Ferguson shooting raises concern over racial tensions in the US http://t.co/MJwOTrxF4H
— Agence France-Presse (@AFP) August 24, 2014
Images of police wielding military-style guns and armor have shocked many Americans following clashes that were triggered by the fatal shooting of a black teenager, Michael Brown, by a white police officer in Ferguson two weeks ago.
— CNN Breaking News (@cnnbrk) August 24, 2014
Obama wants to know whether the programmes, which were expanded after the Sept 11, 2001, attacks, are appropriate and whether state and local law enforcement are given proper training, the official said.
— Occupy Oakland (@OccupyOakland) August 24, 2014
The review will be led by White House staff including the Domestic Policy Council, the National Security Council, the Office of Management and Budget, and relevant US agencies including the Departments of Defense, Homeland Security, Justice and Treasury, and conducted in coordination with Congress.
Obama signaled he would review the programmes at a White House news conference on Monday when he said he wanted to make sure police were purchasing equipment they actually needed because there is "a big difference between our military and our local law enforcement and we don't want those lines blurred."
— SBS News (@SBSNews) August 24, 2014
A growing number of lawmakers have voiced concern about the militarization of US police forces through programmes administered by the Pentagon, Justice Department and Department of Homeland Security.
Democratic Senator Claire McCaskill of Missouri, who heads the oversight subcommittee of the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, announced plans this week for a hearing in September about the programmes.
White privilege is when you can shoot an unarmed kid to death and be considered the martyr, complete with t-shirts. http://t.co/5hzuOWGgbj
— Jamil Smith (@JamilSmith) August 24, 2014
Senate Armed Services Committee Chairman Carl Levin, a Michigan Democrat, said last week he planned a review to ensure that the Pentagon's 1033 programme, which transfers surplus equipment to local and state authorities, was working as intended before the full Senate considers the annual bill that authorizes military spending.
Two rallies, one racial divide over Ferguson shooting http://t.co/Q3h9TtiNKS
— Reuters U.S. News (@ReutersUS) August 24, 2014
Key concerns include a clause in the programme that requires police to use the equipment within a year, something the American Civil Liberties Union argues may give police forces an incentive to use the equipment in inappropriate situations. The programme also does not mandate training for crowd control or other uses.
— Mashable (@mashable) August 24, 2014
House of Representatives lawmakers defeated a bill to halt the 1033 programme in a 355-62 vote in June, but concerns about the handling of the crisis in Ferguson have revived the reform effort.
COMPANIES HAVE EYED 'ADJACENT' MARKETS
The Pentagon has transferred more than $4 billion of equipment including armored vehicles, tents, rifles and night- vision goggles to local and state agencies since 2006, of which about 36 percent involved new equipment.
Over the past year alone, the Pentagon said, it has transferred some 600 armored military trucks known as MRAPS that were built for the war in Iraq.
Ferguson protesters have some demands http://t.co/ii8N2ebtEI
— HuffPost Politics (@HuffPostPol) August 24, 2014
In addition, the Department of Homeland Security has awarded more than $35 billion in grants over the past decade.
US weapons makers have been eyeing what they call "adjacent" markets for years, keen to drum up fresh demand for products initially developed for the military, and recently, to offset declines in US and European military spending.
— Jay (@JayExecutive) August 23, 2014
Faced with a dwindling number of big-ticket military contracts, even the Pentagon's largest suppliers such as Lockheed Martin Corp and Northrop Grumman Corp are competing for increasingly smaller contracts in commercial or non-military markets, analysts and industry executives said.
Among the products marketed to state and local officials are military-grade communications equipment, radios, night-vision goggles, drones and other surveillance equipment.
— Agence France-Presse (@AFP) August 23, 2014
Some smaller companies such as privately held Sierra Nevada Corp and Exelis Inc are also marketing military-style reconnaissance systems to state and local governments to help agencies become more efficient, said Loren Thompson, chief operating officer of the Virginia-based Lexington Institute think tank.
But Michael Smith, managing director of the Virginia-based Silverline Group defense consultancy, said local law enforcement agencies accounted for less than 1 percent of the revenues of most defense contractors.
But he said the crisis in Ferguson could help niche firms by increasing demand for cameras, more coordinating centers and better training.
Digital Ally, which makes tiny digital video cameras worn by police officers, and Taser International Inc, which makes stun guns, have seen a sharp increase in interest in their products since Aug. 9, the day of the fatal shooting in Ferguson.
The 1033 programme was begun in 1991 to help police forces in the "War on Drugs," and was revamped in 1997 to include counterterrorism activities. Chris Coyne, economics professor at George Mason University in Virginia, said the programme expanded sharply after the 2001 hijacked airliner attacks.
"Once it was in place, it led to opening the floodgates in an unquestioning manner to the state and local level. And people grabbed stuff because they could," Coyne said.
Coyne said he was particularly concerned about the use of such teams after the Boston Marathon bombing in 2013. "Shutting down a city and unleashing massive SWAT teams that look very similar to military forces abroad is problematic. Then in Ferguson, it just ramped up even more," he said.